Wikinews interviews Aurélien Miralles about Sirenoscincus mobydick species discovery

Thursday, January 24, 2013

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A group of researchers published a paper about their discovery of a new species of Madagascar mermaid skink lizards last December. The species is the fourth forelimbs-only terrestrial tetrapods species known to science, and the first one which also has no fingers on the forelimbs.

The species was collected at Marosely, Boriziny (French: Port-Bergé), Sofia Region, Madagascar. The Sirenoscincus mobydick name is after the existing parent genus, and a sperm whale from the 1851 novel Moby-Dick by Herman Melville.

This week, Wikinews interviewed one of the researchers, French zoologist Aurélien Miralles, about the research.

((Wikinews)) What caused your initial interest in Madagascar lizards?

Aurélien Miralles: Well, I would say that since I am a child I am fascinated by the biodiversity of tropical countries, and more especially by reptiles. I did a PhD on the evolution and systematics of skink lizards from South America. Then, I get a Humboldt grant to do a postdoc in Germany, at the Miguel Vences Lab, in order to study Malagasy skinks. Madagascar being a fabulous hotspot for reptiles (and not only for reptiles actually), it was a very nice opportunity. Professor Vences proposed me to associate our complementary fields of expertise: he is expert in herpetology for Madagascar, and I am expert in skinks lizards (family Scincidae). It was a very fruitful experience, and many other results have still to [be] published.

((WN)) How was the new species discovered?

AM: By a very funny coincidence actually. In 2010, I went to Madagascar for a long trip through the south of the island, in the semi-arid bush for collecting lizards and snakes samples. Then, during the last days, just before coming back to Germany, I have visited by coincidence the zoological collection of the University of Antananarivo. In that place, I found an old jar of ethanol with two weird little specimens previously collected by a student who didn’t realize it was something new. Being expert on skinks, I immediately recognised it was something very probably new, very different from all the other known species.

((WN)) What does “Sirenoscincus” stand for?

AM: I am not the author of the genus name Sirenoscincus. This genus name was already existing. It has been described by Sakata and Hikida (two Japanese herpetologists). “Sireno” means mermaid. “Scincus” means skinks, a group of little lizards on which I am particularly focusing my studies. So, Sirenoscinus means “mermaid skink”, in reference to [the] fact it has forelimbs but no hindlimbs.

((WN)) How deep underground do the lizards live?

AM: Hard to answer this question because nothing is known on the ecology of this species. But more reasonably, we can hypothesize, by comparison to similar species of skinks, that it is probably living just under the sand surface, [a] few centimeters deep, probably no more, or below [a] rock, leaf litter, or piece of dead wood.

((WN)) What do the lizards eat?

AM: Again, by analogy, I would say most likely small invertebrates (insects, larvae, worms etc…).

((WN)) What equipment was used during the research?

AM: Classic equipment (microscope) and also a state-of-the-art device: a micro CT-scan. It is a big device producing [a] 3D picture of the internal structure without damaging the specimen. It is actually very similar to the scanner used in human medicine, but this one is specially designed for small specimens. Otherwise, I am currently studying the DNA of this species and closely related species in order to determine its phylogenetic position compared to other species with legs, in order to learn more about the evolutionary phenomena leading to limb loss.

((WN)) There are several news sources that have a photo of the species. Is it a photo as seen in a CT-scan?

AM: No, this picture showing a whitish specimen on a black background is not a CT-scan. It is a normal photograph of the collection specimen preserved in alcohol (the one that was in the jar). You can see the complete of picture (including CT-scan 3D radiography, drawing…) in the original scientific publication.

((WN)) Do you know when the newly discovered mermaid skink species was put into the jar? Do you have its photo (of the jar)?

AM: No, I have no picture of the jar. The specimen has been collected in November 2004.

((WN)) What were the roles of the people involved in the research? What activity was most time-consuming?

AM: As first investigator, I did most of the work…and the longest part of the work was to examine closely related species in order to do comparisons…and also to check the complete bibliography related to this topic and to write the paper.
Mrs Anjeriniaina is the student who […] collected the specimen a couple of years ago.
Mrs Hipsley and Mr Müller learnt me how to use the CT-scan, and helped me concerning some point relative to internal morphology. Mr Vences helped me as supervisors. Additionally, all of them have corrected the article, and gave me many relevant advices and corrections, thus improving the quality and the reliability of the paper.

((WN)) Did you get in touch with an external entity to get the new species officially recognised?

AM: No. In zoology, it is only needed to publish the description of a new species (and to give it a name) in a scientific journal, and to designate a holotype specimen (= specimen that will be the official reference for this species), to get this new species “officially” recognised by the scientific community. That does not mean that this new species is “correct” (it might be invalidated by subsequent counter-studies), but that means that this discovery and the new name of [the] species are officially existing.

((WN)) Are there any further plans on exploring the species habitat and lifestyle?

AM: No, not really for the time being, because ecology is not our field of expertise. But other studies (including molecular studies) are currently in progress, in order to focus on the phylogenetic position and the evolution of this species.
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Shopping For Used Electric Guitar}

Submitted by: Lanny Hintz

Music lovers get attracted to music instruments invariably, but guitar is most preferred by many music lovers. Guitars are prominent from ancient times, and now with the addition of wonderful instruments like electric guitars it has also become a fantasy learning it. A new instrument to any fresher is not advisable as they lack awareness of handling it meticulously.

Used electric guitars are really beneficial to learners. Speaking of benefit, the used electric guitars come in a more affordable price than the new ones. Students or people who begin learning may discontinue due to various reasons like health, hobby, education, transfer or due to boredom of learning and mastering it as it is time consuming to master it. Procuring a used one gives the learners an opportunity to learn it without fear as they have not invested huge amount on an instrument that they may discontinue on their accord.

Playing the electric guitar involves endurance, firm determination, constant rehearsals, training, and performances. There are numerous brands and styles of electric guitars available in the music market. One has to deftly choose an electric guitar. As a first instrument, learning and practicing is best done on a used electric guitar.

Purchasing a new Electric guitar can be termed as luxurious and pricey.

Acquiring a new electric guitar sometimes turn to be a futile investment as suddenly few realize they are not interested in it as they believed they were. During such circumstances the huge amount just lies in a dump or in a closet accumulating dust.

Purchasing used electric guitars should be done keeping in mind few points like determining how much they have been used. Soundboard is another important factor to be considered in purchasing a used electric guitar. Soundboard that bears more scratches indicates frequent playing of the instrument and a better investment. If a used electric guitar involves replacement of sound board, it is a pricey bargain. Checking for indications of breaking or rupturing of the instrument is essential as it affects the balance of the instrument, and this is one of the primary reasons for new guitars to become a used electric guitar. Observing that the strings are at an equal distance to the entire length from the board is also important as it speaks on the sound produced. Ensuring the tuners on the used electric guitars are good enough to withhold the stress of the strings is necessary as a used electric guitar may weaken over a span of time resulting in getting out of tune.

Used electric guitars are available on the local music stores or pawn shops. Nowadays, websites like eBay are encumbered with used instruments like the electric guitar. Buying a used electric guitar serves as multipurpose as it saves money and assists learning. Though the music markets are flooded with electric guitars it is difficult to find big difference between any used and new electric guitar but for the price. Possessing a new one is advisable only when one is proficient in playing the electric guitar.

About the Author: Lanny Hintz writes about

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Canadian nuclear reactor shutdown causes worldwide medical isotope shortage

Wednesday, May 20, 2009

The nuclear reactor at Chalk River, Ontario in Canada was shut down on Thursday, May 14 by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) due to a leak of heavy water. Government officials say that by Saturday the demand for medical isotopes will no longer be met, due to the shortage caused by the closure.

Medical isotopes are used in diagnostic procedures for cancer, heart disease and other medical conditions. When radioactive isotopes are injected into the body, radiologists can view higher radiation via medical imaging, enabling them to make a more accurate diagnosis.

Estimates suggest that the reactor will be shut down for approximately one month for repairs. The Chalk River Laboratories produce 33% of the international supply of medical isotopes.

Lisa Raitt, Natural Resources Minister said, “A secure supply of medical isotopes is not only an issue for Canada, it is an international issue that is being addressed co-operatively by all isotope-producing countries.”

“It may mean that if you have an elective study booked … that patient is going to be deferred and will have to wait until the situation is resolved. I’m reasonably confident that for most patients, if they’re having an acute problem, that problem is going to be dealt with – and the greater the acuity, the more likelihood it’s going to be dealt with quickly and expeditiously,” said Dr. Karen Gulenchyn, a nuclear medicine expert.

“The government of Canada is engaging international isotope producers as well as companies such as MDS Nordion, Lantheus, and Covidien, who all play key roles in securing medical isotope supply for North America,” said Raitt and Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq.

In December 2007, the 52-year-old reactor was shut down and the Canadian House of Common stepped in to restart the reactor.

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Uterine Fibroid Treatment With Rf Ablasion Moore

byAlma Abell

Rf Ablasion Moore uses high-energy waves in order to interrupt pain signals. While there are a number of areas of the body that this treatment can be used on, one of the most common is for destroying uterine fibroids. When this is used, the uterus is able to be preserved.

The procedure is considered a minimally invasive one that is done in an out-patient setting. If you opt for this type of treatment for uterine fibroids, you can expect:

* The surgeon you use to map out your uterus for the fibroids.

* A small incision to be made to insert the hand piece of the machine into the uterus. Then small needles will be inserted into every fibroid to apply the energy.

* The tissues that are normal in the uterus will not be affected and the tissue that is destroyed will be reabsorbed.

Is this procedure safe?

Using Rf Ablasion Moore for the treatment of uterine fibroids has been proven extremely safe. Prior to administering the procedure, your doctor will cover all of the treatment possibilities with you in order to discuss the benefits and risks of each option.

What are the specific advantages of this treatment over other options for getting rid of uterine fibroids?

There are a number of advantages offered by this treatment for uterine fibroids, which include:

* A much shorter recovery period and the ability to return to your normal activities quickly.

* Reduction of all symptoms related to or caused by fibroids.

* Improvement of your quality of life.

* Very low rates of complications.

* The need for smaller incisions than other procedures.

* Only a small possibility of scarring.

Will the treatment be painful?

The treatment will be completed after you are giving general anesthesia, which means that you will not experience any pain while it is being done. After completion, there may be some mild discomfort in your abdominal area.

If you are interested in the treatment, talk with Dr Darryl D Robinson for more information. He will be able to provide you with the results you need. You can also discuss if this is the right treatment option for your particular needs. Visit website for more information.

Questions raised over Mosquito device ahead of New South Wales trial

Sunday, June 23, 2013

A device known as the Mosquito, set to be trialed in New South Wales (NSW), Australia by RailCorp in a bid to deter vandals from areas frequently the target of graffiti, is attracting criticism. Wikinews reached out to several people about the trials.

The units work by emitting a high-pitched buzz, similar to that of a mosquito, which is generally only audible to those under the age of about 24. The aim is to repel young people who become irritated by the noise, as a prevention method against graffiti, loitering, and other crimes like theft.

The initiative was announced last month, but RailCorp has not revealed when it intends to test the technology to crack down on graffiti.

In an interview with Wikinews, President of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties Cameron Murphy this week labeled the strategy “ridiculous”. “All they’re going to do is wear headphones and these [devices] will make no difference at all.”

Thousands of units have been set up in the UK since they first became available about seven years ago, where they’re used to stop youths gathering near public areas like shops and train stations. The technology has a high usage rate in the UK, and the Council of Europe has called for a ban on grounds it violates human rights, calling it “highly offensive”.

A RailCorp spokesperson confirmed to Wikinews the devices would only be situated on railway land away from public areas.

Mr Murphy maintains the NSW government’s policy is “based upon discrimination” and it assumes the youth affected by the noise are those doing graffiti, without solid evidence to prove this.

NSW Liberal MP Gareth Ward told Wikinews, “very few crime fighting techniques are fool-proof,” and as people have found ways to get around CCTV, they’re like to do the same with this, which is why it’s only being trialed at this stage. He acknowledged the devices will be situated in areas where the general public shouldn’t be hanging around. “There are certain areas in the network where trains may not be travelling at a particular time and that’s when those devices will be turned on […] and I think that’s perfectly reasonable.” He remarked, “any young person who feels they’ve been aggrieved […] should feel free to contact the Minster for Transport.”

A mobile phone message tone based on the same mosquito sound has been touted as teacher-proof because teens should be the only ones able to hear it if it goes off during class.

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New method of displaying time patented

Saturday, October 14, 2006

An American inventor has patented a pair of new time formats with a footprint less than 50% of that of conventional four-digit time. The more unusual of the two new formats, called “TWELV”, dispenses with numerals altogether. In place of clock hands or digits, the new clock uses color to convey the hour and a moon image to convey the minute, which moon slowly grows throughout the course of an hour from a narrow crescent to a full-fledged circle.

The second and more approachable of the new formats retains numerical digits to indicate the minute but uses colors to convey the hour.

Early critics question whether the aesthetic benefits of the moon-clock will be sufficient to encourage users to learn the color-based time-telling system. However, the size advantages of the new system may make it particularly suitable for mobile applications, particularly cell phones, wearable computers, and head-mounted displays.

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How To Clean And Optimize Your Pc

Submitted by: Cham Altatis

Maintaining the health of your PC can make you work faster and finish your tasks on time. It can also save you from all the hassles that slow running computer can give to you. I myself suffered a lot from those problems before so I seriously learned how to make my PC clean and fast.

Tips On How To Make Your PC Clean And Fast

Use Genuine Programs

One of the reasons why your PC is becoming slow is that, some of the programs you are using are fake. They have some files that cause your computer system to run slow. Thus, stay away from pirated software and use only genuine ones.

Install Anti-virus Software

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Anti-virus programs are very important in guarding viruses from coming to your system. It is recommended for you to use more than one program so that what the first software cannot catch, the other one can. You also have to scan your PC every time so that you can delete the viruses that might have passed through your system.

Defrag Your Disks

Sometimes, the reason why your system is running slow is because your hard drives are already clogged. You have to defrag your drives to organize those files and gain some extra space. This process might take you a long time but it is really worth it to wait for it if you want to have a faster PC.

Delete Unused Shortcuts

You also have to clean your desktop by deleting those unused shortcuts. They are just occupying some space in your system.

Uninstall Unnecessary Applications

Don t go overboard in installing so many programs in your PC. Just install the software that you need. Programs can occupy a considerable amount of space in your system. Moreover, some unused programs might just be running in the background, using some of your CPU and memory power. Thus, better get rid of unimportant applications.

Protect Your PC

It is better to make your PC just yours. Do not just let anyone insert their flash drives and other gadgets to your PC. You are not sure if those devices are clean so better avoid plugging them to your computer. If it is really needed, scan first the drive before opening it. If there are some viruses found, delete them first before opening the drive.

Use A Guard Program

Cleaning and optimizing your PC can take you a lot of time. If you are a busy person, you may not have all the time to do all those tasks. The solution to this is to let utility software do the tasks automatically for you.

Those are the ways on how to maintain your PC. Just apply those techniques and you can enjoy using a healthy and fast computer system. In this way, you can have more time for to hang out with your family and friends. You will also be saved from all the hassles that a problematic computer can bring. Using those techniques above allows you to have an ever new PC once again.

About the Author: Cham Altatis writes for

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Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Thursday, June 23, 2011

NASA’s Cassini–Huygens spacecraft has discovered evidence for a large-scale saltwater reservoir beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The data came from the spacecraft’s direct analysis of salt-rich ice grains close to the jets ejected from the moon. The study has been published in this week’s edition of the journal Nature.

Data from Cassini’s cosmic dust analyzer show the grains expelled from fissures, known as tiger stripes, are relatively small and usually low in salt far away from the moon. Closer to the moon’s surface, Cassini found that relatively large grains rich with sodium and potassium dominate the plumes. The salt-rich particles have an “ocean-like” composition and indicate that most, if not all, of the expelled ice and water vapor comes from the evaporation of liquid salt-water. When water freezes, the salt is squeezed out, leaving pure water ice behind.

Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph also recently obtained complementary results that support the presence of a subsurface ocean. A team of Cassini researchers led by Candice Hansen of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, measured gas shooting out of distinct jets originating in the moon’s south polar region at five to eight times the speed of sound, several times faster than previously measured. These observations of distinct jets, from a 2010 flyby, are consistent with results showing a difference in composition of ice grains close to the moon’s surface and those that made it out to the E ring, the outermost ring that gets its material primarily from Enceladean jets. If the plumes emanated from ice, they should have very little salt in them.

“There currently is no plausible way to produce a steady outflow of salt-rich grains from solid ice across all the tiger stripes other than salt water under Enceladus’s icy surface,” said Frank Postberg, a Cassini team scientist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany.

The data suggests a layer of water between the moon’s rocky core and its icy mantle, possibly as deep as about 50 miles (80 kilometers) beneath the surface. As this water washes against the rocks, it dissolves salt compounds and rises through fractures in the overlying ice to form reserves nearer the surface. If the outermost layer cracks open, the decrease in pressure from these reserves to space causes a plume to shoot out. Roughly 400 pounds (200 kilograms) of water vapor is lost every second in the plumes, with smaller amounts being lost as ice grains. The team calculates the water reserves must have large evaporating surfaces, or they would freeze easily and stop the plumes.

“We imagine that between the ice and the ice core there is an ocean of depth and this is somehow connected to the surface reservoir,” added Postberg.

The Cassini mission discovered Enceladus’ water-vapor and ice jets in 2005. In 2009, scientists working with the cosmic dust analyzer examined some sodium salts found in ice grains of Saturn’s E ring but the link to subsurface salt water was not definitive. The new paper analyzes three Enceladus flybys in 2008 and 2009 with the same instrument, focusing on the composition of freshly ejected plume grains. In 2008, Cassini discovered a high “density of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected” in geysers erupting from the moon. The icy particles hit the detector target at speeds between 15,000 and 39,000 MPH (23,000 and 63,000 KPH), vaporizing instantly. Electrical fields inside the cosmic dust analyzer separated the various constituents of the impact cloud.

“Enceladus has got warmth, water and organic chemicals, some of the essential building blocks needed for life,” said Dennis Matson in 2008, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“This finding is a crucial new piece of evidence showing that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life can be sustained on icy bodies orbiting gas giant planets,” said Nicolas Altobelli, the European Space Agency’s project scientist for Cassini.

“If there is water in such an unexpected place, it leaves possibility for the rest of the universe,” said Postberg.

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Six-year-old boy dies two weeks after falling through icy pond in Berkshire, England

Friday, January 22, 2010

A six-year-old boy from the county of Berkshire in England, United Kingdom, who fell through a frozen pond on January 5, has died. The pond is near to the location of his house where he was playing with one of his friends. Thomas Hudson — or Tommy as he was also known — was trapped underneath the garden pond in Crookham Common, which was six feet in depth, for 30 minutes. It is not clear what exactly caused Thomas to fall into the pond.

After calls for help from Tommy’s playmate, a woman went into the water and searched for Thomas. It is believed that the woman was related to Tommy. A fire crew managed to take Thomas out of the water. After ambulance workers found themselves unable to restart his heart, Tommy was taken by aircraft to John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, Oxfordshire. There, an emergency operation was carried out on him before Thomas was placed on a life support machine. He died on January 21 after he failed to regain consciousness.

It has been reported that Thames Valley Police are launching an investigation into the death. However, the police has said that there are no suspicious circumstances as far as they are concerned.

Hugh Whitaker was one of the people assisting in the search for Thomas on January 5. “We worked as a team with the fire service to locate the boy in the water and he was pulled out,” Whitaker stated. “It was thought he had been in there for around half an hour. Once he was located he was taken to the air ambulance and on to the John Radcliffe Hospital after being treated by a doctor. He was in cardiac arrest at the scene. A woman who went into the water was examined by paramedics at the scene but she did not require hospital treatment. The lake was between 15 and 20 metres by 15 and 20 metres in size. From where he was recovered from he would have had to have walked out onto the water — he was not far from the centre of the frozen lake.”

A statement released from the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust that said: “We are very sorry to confirm that Tommy Hudson died peacefully at our hospital this [Thursday] morning. Tommy’s parents ask that their privacy be respected at this very difficult time.”

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Regressive Income Tax Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes}

Regressive Income Tax- Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes

by

deepak kulkarni

If you are searching for information related to the regressive income tax or any other such as sales tax rates, Iris tax amnesty, dc income tax rate or 2008 federal income tax brackets you have come to the right article. This piece will provide you with not just general regressive income tax information but also specific and helpful information. Enjoy it.

In the long run, it pays to work within the government’s system of extensions and take their lower interest rate on the amount of your tax you cannot pay yet. If the payment play that they offer you is still too steep for you to pay each month, then call the hotline number provided on the offer and request another plan is arranged. You may need to show proof of your income to do this, but it will be worth it so you don’t default on the unpaid taxes. Taxes of any type and form always burden you. Your income, off and on, is half eaten by the taxes you pay. These taxes can be federal taxes, state taxes, local income taxes, payroll taxes, which include Social Security and Medicare, sales tax, excise taxes and property taxes. However, if you are intelligent enough, you can apply tax-planning tricks that would eventually enhance your income. Given below are the effective steps for reducing your tax burden. Come tax time, be sure to get professional tax advice specific to your situation. Also, be sure to read the section in IRS Publication 908 on “reduction of tax attributes,” which requires people using the insolvency rule to reduce their basis in such things as rental property, loss carryovers, etc. Most of that probably won’t apply to you, but again, get specific advice before winging it. Unlike many people out there, don’t forget that even if this article related to the regressive income tax doesn’t cover all the basics you wanted, you can always take a look at any of the search engines like Google or Yahoo for more regressive income tax related information. Tax relief is any deduction from taxes allowed to taxpayers by federal or state tax authorities for certain expense categories. An example is allowing the deduction of interest paid on educational loans from the income tax payable. Tax relief also takes the form of full or partial tax exemptions for low and moderate income families. In some cases, tax relief includes releasing citizens from paying taxes immediately, particularly during cases of natural disasters and similar contingencies. An example is taxing relief granted to families following the devastation caused by hurricanes in the south during 2005. Time your investment sales. If your income is higher than expected, sell some of your losers to reduce taxable income. If you will be selling a mutual fund, sell before the year-end distributions to avoid taxes on the upcoming dividend or capital gain. Also, you should allocate taxes efficient investments to your taxable accounts and non-efficient investments to your retirement accounts, to reduce the tax you pay on interest, dividends and capital gains. Still, in countries across the world, majority of wealth is concentrated at the hands of fairly small number of people. Ideally, taxes on wealth cut down the disparities in wealth rather than the income, which actually is the determinant factor on how the scales are weighed for the next generations. It might interest you to know that lots of folks searching for the regressive income tax also got information related to other income tax return itr2, payroll tax penalties, and even federal tax return form here with ease.

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State Income Tax

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Regressive Income Tax- Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes}