Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Thursday, June 23, 2011

NASA’s Cassini–Huygens spacecraft has discovered evidence for a large-scale saltwater reservoir beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The data came from the spacecraft’s direct analysis of salt-rich ice grains close to the jets ejected from the moon. The study has been published in this week’s edition of the journal Nature.

Data from Cassini’s cosmic dust analyzer show the grains expelled from fissures, known as tiger stripes, are relatively small and usually low in salt far away from the moon. Closer to the moon’s surface, Cassini found that relatively large grains rich with sodium and potassium dominate the plumes. The salt-rich particles have an “ocean-like” composition and indicate that most, if not all, of the expelled ice and water vapor comes from the evaporation of liquid salt-water. When water freezes, the salt is squeezed out, leaving pure water ice behind.

Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph also recently obtained complementary results that support the presence of a subsurface ocean. A team of Cassini researchers led by Candice Hansen of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, measured gas shooting out of distinct jets originating in the moon’s south polar region at five to eight times the speed of sound, several times faster than previously measured. These observations of distinct jets, from a 2010 flyby, are consistent with results showing a difference in composition of ice grains close to the moon’s surface and those that made it out to the E ring, the outermost ring that gets its material primarily from Enceladean jets. If the plumes emanated from ice, they should have very little salt in them.

“There currently is no plausible way to produce a steady outflow of salt-rich grains from solid ice across all the tiger stripes other than salt water under Enceladus’s icy surface,” said Frank Postberg, a Cassini team scientist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany.

The data suggests a layer of water between the moon’s rocky core and its icy mantle, possibly as deep as about 50 miles (80 kilometers) beneath the surface. As this water washes against the rocks, it dissolves salt compounds and rises through fractures in the overlying ice to form reserves nearer the surface. If the outermost layer cracks open, the decrease in pressure from these reserves to space causes a plume to shoot out. Roughly 400 pounds (200 kilograms) of water vapor is lost every second in the plumes, with smaller amounts being lost as ice grains. The team calculates the water reserves must have large evaporating surfaces, or they would freeze easily and stop the plumes.

“We imagine that between the ice and the ice core there is an ocean of depth and this is somehow connected to the surface reservoir,” added Postberg.

The Cassini mission discovered Enceladus’ water-vapor and ice jets in 2005. In 2009, scientists working with the cosmic dust analyzer examined some sodium salts found in ice grains of Saturn’s E ring but the link to subsurface salt water was not definitive. The new paper analyzes three Enceladus flybys in 2008 and 2009 with the same instrument, focusing on the composition of freshly ejected plume grains. In 2008, Cassini discovered a high “density of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected” in geysers erupting from the moon. The icy particles hit the detector target at speeds between 15,000 and 39,000 MPH (23,000 and 63,000 KPH), vaporizing instantly. Electrical fields inside the cosmic dust analyzer separated the various constituents of the impact cloud.

“Enceladus has got warmth, water and organic chemicals, some of the essential building blocks needed for life,” said Dennis Matson in 2008, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“This finding is a crucial new piece of evidence showing that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life can be sustained on icy bodies orbiting gas giant planets,” said Nicolas Altobelli, the European Space Agency’s project scientist for Cassini.

“If there is water in such an unexpected place, it leaves possibility for the rest of the universe,” said Postberg.

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Six-year-old boy dies two weeks after falling through icy pond in Berkshire, England

Friday, January 22, 2010

A six-year-old boy from the county of Berkshire in England, United Kingdom, who fell through a frozen pond on January 5, has died. The pond is near to the location of his house where he was playing with one of his friends. Thomas Hudson — or Tommy as he was also known — was trapped underneath the garden pond in Crookham Common, which was six feet in depth, for 30 minutes. It is not clear what exactly caused Thomas to fall into the pond.

After calls for help from Tommy’s playmate, a woman went into the water and searched for Thomas. It is believed that the woman was related to Tommy. A fire crew managed to take Thomas out of the water. After ambulance workers found themselves unable to restart his heart, Tommy was taken by aircraft to John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, Oxfordshire. There, an emergency operation was carried out on him before Thomas was placed on a life support machine. He died on January 21 after he failed to regain consciousness.

It has been reported that Thames Valley Police are launching an investigation into the death. However, the police has said that there are no suspicious circumstances as far as they are concerned.

Hugh Whitaker was one of the people assisting in the search for Thomas on January 5. “We worked as a team with the fire service to locate the boy in the water and he was pulled out,” Whitaker stated. “It was thought he had been in there for around half an hour. Once he was located he was taken to the air ambulance and on to the John Radcliffe Hospital after being treated by a doctor. He was in cardiac arrest at the scene. A woman who went into the water was examined by paramedics at the scene but she did not require hospital treatment. The lake was between 15 and 20 metres by 15 and 20 metres in size. From where he was recovered from he would have had to have walked out onto the water — he was not far from the centre of the frozen lake.”

A statement released from the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust that said: “We are very sorry to confirm that Tommy Hudson died peacefully at our hospital this [Thursday] morning. Tommy’s parents ask that their privacy be respected at this very difficult time.”

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Regressive Income Tax Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes}

Regressive Income Tax- Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes


deepak kulkarni

If you are searching for information related to the regressive income tax or any other such as sales tax rates, Iris tax amnesty, dc income tax rate or 2008 federal income tax brackets you have come to the right article. This piece will provide you with not just general regressive income tax information but also specific and helpful information. Enjoy it.

In the long run, it pays to work within the government’s system of extensions and take their lower interest rate on the amount of your tax you cannot pay yet. If the payment play that they offer you is still too steep for you to pay each month, then call the hotline number provided on the offer and request another plan is arranged. You may need to show proof of your income to do this, but it will be worth it so you don’t default on the unpaid taxes. Taxes of any type and form always burden you. Your income, off and on, is half eaten by the taxes you pay. These taxes can be federal taxes, state taxes, local income taxes, payroll taxes, which include Social Security and Medicare, sales tax, excise taxes and property taxes. However, if you are intelligent enough, you can apply tax-planning tricks that would eventually enhance your income. Given below are the effective steps for reducing your tax burden. Come tax time, be sure to get professional tax advice specific to your situation. Also, be sure to read the section in IRS Publication 908 on “reduction of tax attributes,” which requires people using the insolvency rule to reduce their basis in such things as rental property, loss carryovers, etc. Most of that probably won’t apply to you, but again, get specific advice before winging it. Unlike many people out there, don’t forget that even if this article related to the regressive income tax doesn’t cover all the basics you wanted, you can always take a look at any of the search engines like Google or Yahoo for more regressive income tax related information. Tax relief is any deduction from taxes allowed to taxpayers by federal or state tax authorities for certain expense categories. An example is allowing the deduction of interest paid on educational loans from the income tax payable. Tax relief also takes the form of full or partial tax exemptions for low and moderate income families. In some cases, tax relief includes releasing citizens from paying taxes immediately, particularly during cases of natural disasters and similar contingencies. An example is taxing relief granted to families following the devastation caused by hurricanes in the south during 2005. Time your investment sales. If your income is higher than expected, sell some of your losers to reduce taxable income. If you will be selling a mutual fund, sell before the year-end distributions to avoid taxes on the upcoming dividend or capital gain. Also, you should allocate taxes efficient investments to your taxable accounts and non-efficient investments to your retirement accounts, to reduce the tax you pay on interest, dividends and capital gains. Still, in countries across the world, majority of wealth is concentrated at the hands of fairly small number of people. Ideally, taxes on wealth cut down the disparities in wealth rather than the income, which actually is the determinant factor on how the scales are weighed for the next generations. It might interest you to know that lots of folks searching for the regressive income tax also got information related to other income tax return itr2, payroll tax penalties, and even federal tax return form here with ease.

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Regressive Income Tax- Interesting Information For Regressive Taxes}

Apple introduces iPhone and Apple TV

Wednesday, January 10, 2007

Apple Inc. today has introduced the much-anticipated iPhone at the Macworld Conference in San Francisco.

The iPhone is claimed to be “a revolutionary mobile phone” as stated on the Apple website. The device appears to be running a mobile version of the Apple operating system Mac OSX. It is approximately the same size as a 5th generation iPod, it has a 3.5-inch LCD touchscreen display that is used to access all features of the phone including number dial, as well as making phone calls. The iPhone plays music, movies, displays pictures and is able to connect to a wireless network.

Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the device by walking onto the stage and taking the iPhone out of his jeans pocket. During his 2 hour speech he stated that “Today Apple is going to reinvent the phone, We are going to make history today”.

Today Apple also released their Media Center device – Apple TV. It will directly compete with Microsoft’s Media Center operating system. Apple has taken a different approach to the media center market; rather than storing content (such as movies, music and photos) on the device, Apple TV connects to a computer (Mac and Windows) over a wirless network connection and plays all content stored on that computer. This makes it substantially easier for users to organize their media content.

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Interview with Innocent Watat, City Council candidate for Wards 3 & 4 in Brampton, Canada

Saturday, October 21, 2006

The upcoming 2006 Brampton municipal election, to be held November 13, features an array of candidates looking to represent their wards in city council or the council of the Peel Region.

Wikinews contributor Nick Moreau contacted many of the candidates, including Innocent Watat, asking them to answer common questions sent in an email. This ward’s incumbent is Bob Callahan; Balbir Babra, Manny Bianchi-Morfino, Dolly Khokhar, Maria Peart, Tim Turcott, and Sheila White.

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Japanese H-IIA rocket launches satellite into orbit

Saturday, February 18, 2006

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has successfully launched another of their H-IIA space rockets. Its payload, the MTSAT-2 satellite designed to control air traffic and track weather patterns, has successfully separated from the rocket. It is due to be inserted into a geostationary orbit on the 21st of February.

The satellite is owned by the Civil Aviation Bureau and the Japan Meteorological Agency, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

The rocket was launched from the Tanegashima space centre in the southern region of Kagoshima, at 15:55 (06:55 GMT). It is the ninth in a series of H-IIA rockets, which form the main part of the Japanese space program. A previous H-IIA rocket was launched less than a month ago.

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Needing A Professional In Roof Repair In Oshkosh, Wi

byAlma Abell

One of the most important things that you can do when you own a home is to be proactive with any issue that you have. The last thing that you want to do with your home is to sit back and let an issue get worse, just because you don’t feel like dealing with it, or you are trying to put it off until another time. When you are dealing with a roofing issue in your home, it is important that you take the time to find a professional that is going to be able to not just take care of an issue, but make sure that they take care of it in a way to where they aren’t going to have to come back six months later to take care of the same problem. When you are talking about Roof Repair in Oshkosh WI, you want to get the situation taken care of quickly by someone who knows what they are doing.

When you live in a place like Oshkosh, WI, it is important to make sure that your roof is ready for the winter season. You are going to be dealing with a lot of snow, and that snow is going to bring a lot of moisture. If your roof is not properly sealed, or you have a shingle that is out of place, it could cause issues down the line for you. Moisture can leak through, and it can cause damage not just to your roof, but also to the framing of your home. Whether it is mold, wood rot, or water damage in your home, it can cause many issues.

One of the best things that you can do for your roof is to get it inspected at least once a year to make sure that there aren’t any issues that need to be taken care of. By inspecting your roofing, the professional can make Roof Repair in Oshkosh WI as needed. When you are looking for a professional who can take care of all aspects of the job, you want to check out what Motto & Sons can do for you.

Australia sends more troops to Afghanistan

Tuesday, February 21, 2006

The Australian government has confirmed it will send an extra 200 troops to Afghanistan as part of a security and reconstruction team. Prime Minister John Howard says troops will leave from late July and will spend about two years in Afghanistan separate from the Special Forces and commandos already serving there. In a press conference in Canberra today, Mr Howard said the deployment was “further evidence of the government’s ongoing commitment to assist the people of Afghanistan in consolidating their embrace of democracy and resisting any attempt on the part of the Taliban to come back.”

The Australian Greens oppose the deployment of new troops. In a press release, Senator Bob Brown voiced his opinion on the matter, and said the following about Australia’s deployment: “The announcement that Australia will be sending 200 more troops to Afghanistan comes hard on the heels of the Bush administration announcing the withdrawal of 3000 troops from the same theatre,” he said. “Without the US withdrawal there would be no Australian deployment. This is John Howard once again using the ADF to meet the Bush administration’s political shortcomings. Our troops should be kept at home.”

“The ADF contribution will be a mixed security and reconstruction taskforce of approximately 200 personnel and will be deployed over a period of two years,” Howard told reporters. The Australian Defence Force (ADF) troops will be deployed from late July and work alongside Dutch soldiers as part of a NATO force. The extra 200 troops will bring the number of ADF personnel to more than 500.

Australia sent 1,550 troops to Afghanistan in 2001, including special forces, to join the U.S.-led strikes against the Taliban regime. Australia’s only fatality in Afghanistan came in February 2002 when a soldier was killed after his vehicle hit a land mine. Violence has intensified in Afghanistan in recent months, particularly in the south and east, with a wave of raids, roadside and suicide bombings killing dozens of people.

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Stressed plants produce aspirin-like chemical

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Researchers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research have found that stressed plants produce an aspirin-like chemical, methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate is also known as oil of wintergreen. This semi-volatile plant hormone was detected in the air above the plants in the experiments conducted in a walnut grove near Davis, California. According to the scientists the chemical may be a sort of immune response that help protect the plants.

Acetylsalicylic acid, commonly called aspirin, had originally come from the bark of Willow trees. It had never been observed to be emitted as a gas. The researchers observed spikes in methyl salicylate after nighttime temperatures dipped low, which suggested the plants were reacting to cold stress. The peaks were higher during a dry period, pointing to combined stress of cold nighttime temperatures and mild drought.

These findings show tangible proof that plant-to-plant communication occurs on the ecosystem level.

Laboratory observations have shown that numerous plants produce methyl salicylate, but this is the first time the phenomenon has been observed in nature. Previous studies have shown that plants being eaten by animals produce chemicals that can be sensed by other plants. A study conducted in 1997 found that methyl salicylate is produced by tobacco plants inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus. Emitting methyl salicylate may be a means for the plants to warn other plants about a threat.

The finding may help to more readily identify plants under stress by monitoring for the airborne distress signal.

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Rhinoplasty: Makeup Tips For Women After Nose Surgery

Submitted by: Abigail Aaronson

Rhinoplasty is one of the safest and generally the most satisfying plastic surgeries in the market today that can give dramatic and long-lasting results. Yet, if you want to get those perfect results, you need to wait through quite a few weeks or a few months before all the swelling subsides.

It may even take a year until the final product is seen. So what should a girl do in the meantime? Luckily there is a whole bunch of cosmetics in the market that can help camouflage and conceal any bruising and discolorations until your nose completely heals.

It is common to expect some amount of swelling, bruising, discoloration and the presence of incision scars after the surgery. These are the body’s natural way of telling you that something traumatic just happened and that your body is trying to repair it. Still, no one would want everyone paying attention to your healing nose more than they do to you. You can rely on good cosmetics to minimize awkward stares.


Begin with a good concealer first, to cover up the bruises and incision lines. Concealers are much thicker than foundation and can basically erase some of the rhinoplasty-related blemishes. Always find a concealer that closely matches your skin color and is hypoallergenic to keep away from further irritation to your skin. Also choose a waterproof concealer so that the look lasts all day. It is usually best to apply a layer of your regular foundation after you apply the concealer to your bruises and scars, to get that finished look.

In case you have any discoloration of the skin around the surgery area, you can try color correctors. These are specifically designed to hide the unsightly colors that accompany bruising. Try a lavender corrector if you have a yellowish bruise and for the redder discolorations, apply green corrector. Finally make sure you finish with a layer of your own foundation to smoothen out the colors.

The swelling will normally last for a few weeks and there are also ways to disguise them. You can use different shades of a foundation in order to create the contouring effect. You can make your swollen nose look narrower, by applying a strip of foundation two shades lighter than your regular one down the center of your nose. Then apply strips of foundation that are two shades darker than your regular one along the sides of your nose and blend them together as much as you can. This will give an illusion of a thinner nose line, camouflaging any temporary swelling or inflammation.

However, it is advised you get your surgeons approval before you try any of these techniques. Generally they allow you to start wearing makeup just a few days after your surgery, but you will be asked to wait until your stitches have been removed to start covering up the incision lines.

Once you begin using makeup again, make sure the applicators you use are clean and that the products are non-oily and hypoallergenic. You must regularly remove the makeup with toner and cleanser each night. You must avoid an infection in the nose so that the swelling, bruising will not prolong.

If you are well versed with the know-how and application, makeup can be a very effective tool in helping conceal any bruises after your rhinoplasty procedure. You can certainly confident in your social life if you know how to use the camouflaging cosmetics.

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